Monday, May 25, 2020
Self esteem has more to do with Jealousy than we thought. TED Project Thesis: Jealousy leads our minds to see things differently than they appear and create a story in our minds that isn t true. I want my audience to know how a person s self esteem affects a person and how that makes a person feel more jealous. I also want my audience to see how the mind trick us into seeing and thinking things that are not true so we can get even more jealous. I had a story that lead me to this idea of jealousy. One time I was at a party and looked over to the door and I saw my ex boyfriend walking in, and behind him I see his girlfriend. At that moment, I felt jealous. I wasn t sure why I was jealous because what happened between me and him was a long time ago. This moment had me thinking about if there are different types of jealousy there was and if there are people who got more jealous than others. As I was doing research, my mind shifted to a lot of different places which got me to this point of how jealousy leads our minds to see things differently and also a person s self esteem. Some of the research I have done is watch a TED talk called, Ã¢â¬Å"An Ode to EnvyÃ¢â¬ , by Parul Sehgal. Sehgal talks about when she was in elementary school she felt jealousy for a classmate of hers because her classmate had a cute pencil case and was a great speller. Sehgal also talks about how she went into the teacher s grade book and changed her c lassmate AÃ¢â¬â¢s into DÃ¢â¬â¢s and some of her DÃ¢â¬â¢s into AÃ¢â¬â¢s.Show MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesAcquisitions Editor: Kim Norbuta Editorial Project Manager: Claudia Fernandes Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Senior Marketing Assistant: Ian Gold Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Senior Production Project Manager: Kelly Warsak Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Ilene Kahn Senior Art Director: Janet Slowik Interior Design: Suzanne Duda and Michael Fruhbeis Permissions Project Manager: Shannon Barbe Manager, Cover VisualRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words Ã |Ã 702 Pagescould use their laptops. Social events and entertainment were Friday afternoon and evening features. As a spur for creativity, a policy was set that software engineers spend at least 20 percent of their time, or one day a week, working on whatever projects interested them. Do you see any downside to these workplace amenities? Would these influence your choosing to work for Google despite less money? Would some of these be appropriate to other firms? If so, what kind of firms? 16 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chapter 2:Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesSingapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Santora Acquisitions Editor: Brian Mickelson Editorial Project Manager: Sarah Holle Editorial Assistant: Ashlee Bradbury VP Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Production Project Manager: Becca Groves Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Cathleen Petersen Senior Art Director: Janet Slowik Art
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3178 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Introduction: This chapter high light the concept, principle and future of the Interest-free banking around the world particularly and importantly in Pakistan, which is officially; The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (www.pakistan.gov.pk). World is experiencing a large-level of growth in Interest-free banking and finance not only in Muslim countries but also in economically big Non Muslim countries like UK , USA and AUSTRALIA where Muslims are in minorities. The attraction which interest-free banking has, encouraging the world. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Progress interest-free banks in Pakistan" essay for you Create order Its unique concept of equality in profit and loss creating a charm for both, lender and borrower, to feel some sort of confidence. This research work has a great importance in respect to the progress of Interest-free banking in Pakistan. What is an Interest? Interest is a fixed charge for borrowing money. The interest that you give in order to increase the wealth of the people, does not increase in the sight of Allah; and the Zakat that you pay in order to win Allahs approval, its payers do indeed increase their wealth (Surah Al-Rome no. 39)(Shafi and Usmani, 1997, p.67). Forbidden of Interest in Islam is one of the basic Principles. Interest-free activity is depending on the same principle. An activity in which interest is involved either receiving or paying is not allowed in Islam but this does not mean that any activities which help to generate revenue are forbidden. Islam encourages every transaction which helps to generate revenue. It presents different tools to satisfy the basic spirit of business to generate a profit through different business activities. Concept of Interest-free Activity: The word interest free seems very simple but it has actually very deep impact not only on business but also on society. The problems, complications and crises society experiencing at present are because of those decisions taken by human during past. The theory, developed by West, increased the gap between rich and poor. Poor becomes the poorest and rich becomes the richest in a society. Islam tries to minimize this gap between two different classes which becomes huge due to the policies adopted by the west. A financial institution whose statues, rules and procedures expressly state its commitment to the Principle of Islamic Shariah and to the banning of the receipt and payment of interest on any of its operations (Hassan, 1999, p.60). According to Hassan, Islamic law prohibited the interest and the reason behind is; its bad effects on human life and even more on society. The history evidence that rich people always has influence on the policies. They develop such methods in b usinesses which only target the benefits of rich. Their policies focus only how to increase their wealth using the middle, lower and working class people. Concept of interest-free business is aiming to allow human to generate revenue in fair and profitable way, without exploiting the others, specially; poor. The basic principle of Islam is equality. In every part of life, Islam emphasises on the equal distribution of human rights regardless of colour, nationality and religion. Exclusion of interest from financial activities does not necessarily mean that the financier cannot earn a profit. If financing is meant for a commercial purpose, it can be based on concept of profit and loss sharing, for which musharakah and mudarabah have been designed since the very inception of Islamic commercial law (Usmani, 2005, p.10). Islam trays to develop a culture of co-operation help one another under the umbrella of goodness. Stop exploitation of rights of human for the benefits of others. I nterest is like lender charging to borrower extra money with out giving any thing in exchange. Claim extra money without putting any efforts means transfer money from needy person to the lender who already has excess money. It can be concluded in this way; transfer of money from poor to rich and this is contrary to Islamic teaching. Interest-free Banking: Interest-free banking is emerging on the world forum as viable player compeer to interest-based banking. Islamic banking has the same purpose as conventional banking except that it operates in accordance with the rules of shariah (www.islamic-banking.com). This banking system is capable of satisfy the requirement of the society during different time and this is the reason why interest-free banking system progressing. Interest-free banking appeared on the scene as prominent player almost three decades ago. But the concept of interest-free is not new; it is one of the basic principles of Islam. Quran strictly forbid the Interest (riba). Allah deprives interest of all blessing and develops charity; and Allah does not like an ungrateful, sinful person (Suran Al-Baqarah no. 276) (Shafi and Usmani, 1997,p.49). Interest-free banking using the concepts of; profit sharing (mudharabah), joint venture (musharakah), safekeeping (widiah), leasing (ijarah) and cost plus (murabahah). Every school of thoughts agreed that Quran prohibits usury, the payment and/or collection of interest. A part of inclusion of interest, Islam restricts some business those are considered unlawful (haraam) due to their nature like sell of alcohol or pork and produce media which contained pornography. In last three decades, Interest-free banking has been introduced in several Muslim countries and recently in non-Muslim countries. Iran, Pakistan and Sudan adopted and implemented complete Islamic laws of banking. Iran nationalised its bank after the 1979 revolution, in 1983 (Heffernan, S. 1998). They developed Usury-Free Banking Act which only allow the interest free transactions under the Islamic law but overseas banking operations were exempted by this act. PRINCIPLES OF INTEREST-FREE BANKING: Interest-free banking depending on rules and principles created by God. Those rules and principles came to humans knowledge through holy book (Quran), sent by God, and his messenger (Muhammad, PBUH) Interest (riba) Interest is the extra money a borrower paying to the lender because he/she used his/her money. Interest is a fixed rate charged by lender on his/her money with the consent of borrower. The basic criticism on interest is; lender is not sharing loss with borrower. Although lender only asking fixe interest on his/her money in case of huge profit. Non-conventional banking system depends on; the share of both in any case, either profit or loss. Gharar and Maysir Uncertainty (Gharar), speculation (Maysir) or anything which leads to injustice or unfair with any one due to any transaction is prohibitive according to Shariah laws. Gambling is not allowed in Islam. Unethical business Islam is a religion for every human. It always tries to create a peaceful, friendly and ethical environment in the whole society. Islam does not allow any transaction which involves anything like alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco. FUNDAMENTAL OF INTEREST-FREE BANKING Islamic commercial law is actually based on four basic principles. The fundamental of first Islamic business principle is profit and loss sharing, the second is based on fixed service fees and charges; third is based on free of cost and no charges. The other principles are changing with the situation of the business and its operation (Bellalah and Ellouz, 2004). The overall concept regarding interest-free banking among the people is that such banking system is not for commercial transactions. This is completely a wrong concept. Shariah presents the different tools through which commercial transactions can be performed successfully. Musharakah (partnership) Sharing is the literal meaning of musharakah. In the context financial meaning, it is joint enterprise; where all the partners of the business share profit or loss of the joint enterprise. It means a financier in non-conventional system can suffer a loss. Under the interest-based system or conventional system a bank who allows industrialist and/or trader to use depositors money for the business. As a result of good profit in a business depositor only gets the fixed rate of interest on his deposit regardless of how much borrower earn with the help of depositors money. The other possibility in business is loss but depositor is not contributing in loss. He/she only interested in their fixed share. On contrary Islam clearly mentioned that financer must have to participate in both, profit and loss. It is being summarised from the above that industrialist/trader has to share the profit with the depositor and it will provide a benefit to common people rather than rich. Mudarabah (trust financing) Mudarabah is a special kind of partnership where one partner gives money to another for investing it in a commercial enterprise (Usmani, 2002). 1st partner or investor called rabb-ul-mal and the 2nd partner who does the management part of the business called mudarib. 1st partner has no right to participate in the management; in case of loss in this type of business, he is also not sharing it as he has not invest any thing unless any negligence and dishonesty found at his part. He will only be responsible for that loss. It is being observed and experienced that there are some areas where musharakah and mudarabah does not fulfil the economic requirement of the business. In this case interest-free banking develops some new areas under the guidance of Islamic rules to satisfy the financial needs of the business. Murabaha (cost plus financing) In murabaha mode of financing, the seller discloses the actual cost he paid to get the particular commodity and plus his share of profit in it. This share of profit may be based on either a percentage or could be a fixed lump sum amount. Bai-muajjal (deferred payment sale) In this contract of sale parties agree that the payment of price shall be deferred. This selling price could be more then the actual cash price, need to be decide at the time of sale. Payment date can be specified in different ways like two months after the sale or 90 days etc. Ijara (leasing) Ijara is a contract in which the owner of a product transfer its usufruct to some other person on the basis of mutually accepted considerations. Quard Hassan Quard Hassan means beneficial loan. Chapra has defined it as a loan which is returned at the end of he agreed period without any interest or share in the profit or loss of the business. Compatibility of Interest-free banking with Conventional banking: Like interest-based banking, interest-free banking system also has a same motive and practice. Except that interest-free banking works under the Shariah laws which strongly prohibited the involvement of interest and recommend the sharing of profit and loss between contracted parties. As a result of this, new concept being introduced called Profit-Loss-Sharing (PLS). The products which interest-based banking system offers; like current accounts, saving accounts, insurances, and mortgages are more or less same but the element of interest is being treated in different way. The practice of fixed interest rate in conventional banking system is the difference between two systems. The practices and situations are not so different from conventional banking such as the cost of funds are closely related to interest rates and guarantees are nearly as important in Islamic banks as they are in the conventional banks (Hassan, 1999). Political and religious matters play very important role either to transform the whole financial system of the country into Islamic financial system at once or implement it step by step and gradually. As world experienced in Iran; 1983 Usury Free Banking Law completely replaced the interest-based banking system. Iran has 98% Muslim population (www.cia.gov) and the response they got from the people was quite positive. Sudan also implemented the interest-free banking system with Iran. Conventional banking system very strongly implemented and penetrated all over the world before the interest-free came on the scene of financial pages. It is still not easy for non-conventional banking system to make a place to breath. Due to these situations some Muslim and Non-Muslim countries are adopting the interest-free banking system with conventional, which is already exists, banking system. Bahrain and Malaysia are the examples. Such a dual system creating an opportunity for the people to invest either in conventional or in interest-free system or e ither get benefit of both systems. Due to successful approach of such parallel system of banking; Malaysia became the hub of interest-free banking. This premature dual system is an important and positive break to the world economy and it could move towards greater Islamization. Regardless of such performance interest-free system is still significantly smaller than conventional system. Hard work needs to be done to get the desire results and compete the conventional banking system especially during this crises time. Empirical research Interest-free banking and its implementation: Interest-free banking is still living its early life but that is not to say that such concept is completely new and never being tried before in the world. In Malaysia during mid-forties and during mid-fifties in Pakistan this interest-free system were being tested but due to some reasons neither of it survived. The Conference of the Finance Ministers of the Islamic Countries held in 1970 at Karachi and 1st International Conference on Islamic Economics in 1976. Next year in 1977 International Economic conference in London became the reason of Interest-free banking system. This was the time when the demand of implication of theory in practice became stronger. 90% of the population in Pakistan belongs to Muslim religion. Among those 70% are Sunni Muslims and 20% are Shia Muslims. In 1979, the first part of the economic reform began in Pakistan and Zakat was imposed on all savings accounts. The issues were raised; 1st the banks are not the custodians of the money thats why banks can not distribute the Zakat, 2nd who will provide the surety that the money will be delivered to deserving people. Apart of the above, Shia Muslims have their own way to distribute the Zakat and thats why government of Pakistan separate them from this process of Zakat deduction. Now every Shia Muslim has to submit the declaration about their religion as a Shia Muslim and then the banks eliminate them form the Zakat deduction process. During mid 80s, General Zia-ul-Haq was President of Pakistan, non-conventional banking system being introduced. Continue Assets held by fully Shariah-compliant banks or interest-free banking windows of conventional banks, rose by 28.6%, to $822bn from $639bn in 2008. This is in striking contrast to The Bankers 2009 Top 1000 World Bank Rankings released in July, which showed annual asset growth of just 6.8% at conventional banks. (www.ameinfo.com) The Islamic finance industry continues to build a solid track record: the compound annual growth r ate for 2006-2009 is 27.86%, with assets forecast to hit $1033bn in 2010. (www.ameinfo.com) Challenges to Interest-free banking: We are getting to the point that we are holding informal talks at an early stage with clients and we help them explore whether there are viable Islamic options in the syndications market or with capital market instruments says Khan ( Everett-Heath, Tom) Issues and Problems facing Conventional banking: Policies and Laws are being developed for the benefits of state and people. Departments either Government and/or private establish under the policies and laws of the country. Same procedure applies on banking industry. Sound banking system reflects the stability of the economy in any country. Islamic bank embraces the philosophical underpinning of ethical banking which is the quest to make a market in money, but not to make money in the market (Green, 1989). The basic concept of interest-free banking is to operate business on the basis of demand rather then the need of the society and people. It is being observed; their businesses are mostly in those areas where demand is high. Need of the people is not the priority in interest-based banking. Their decisions are not always in favour of society, infect they only focused on the profit generating options. This is one of the problems which unbalanced the society and increase the gap between, rich and poor, two classes. It is a ge neral opinion among the bankers that the global financial crisis accelerates the interest in interest-free banking among the people and it provides a chance to interest-free banking system to capture the market. This opportunity is only arises because of the problems in interest-based banking system. In the second quarter the industry lost $3.7 billion, credit quality dropped to all-time lows, the troubled-bank list reached a 15-year high and federal reserves backing deposits fell to their lowest level since the savings and loan crisis (Adler, Joe). How Interest-free Banking deal with these problems and issues: Interest-free banking works on the basis of profit and loss-sharing which brings social and economic benefits to borrowers, lenders and communities. Welfare of society through promotion of equity and facilitate the poor by providing the credit. This step generates more business activities, the opportunities of job and assists the common people to earn some income. Abdul Gafoor (2003) mentioned that Interest-free banks have been using their energies in charity works. Directly or indirectly they are financing those projects which are under control of charity organisations for the purpose to help the needy and deserving member of the society. The vast majority of shariah-complaint institutions have been conducting their business in a conservative manner, and they avoided credit derivatives and other complex structured assets that turned toxic for interest-based banks Al-Yousuf says (GCC Regional Report). Investors are looking towards interest-free banking and it is very important f or bankers to learn lessons about good banking. Al-Yousuf emphasises that we have to understand the fundaments of credit concept and requirement of our customers. He added; the ability of income-generating and capital appreciation; attracted the investor towards this newly presented system of banking. During early eightys Islamic banking were trying to entre in Non-Muslim countries and Equality in every part of life established balance among different things. The concept of distribution of profit is creating a difference between two systems. Reference: Abdul Gafoor, A. L. M. 2003. Meeting the financial needs of Muslims: A comprehensive scheme, International Journal of Islamic financial Services, 5(3):29-36. Adler, Joe. American Banker, 8/28/2009, Vol. 174 Issue 164, p1-3, 2p graphs; (AN44080593), Business Resource Premier. Bellalah, M. and Ellouz, S. (2004) Islamic Finance, Interest Rates and Islamic Banking: A Survey of the Literature. Finance India, 18, pp. 533 Everett-Heath, Tom. MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, 12/110/2004, Vol. 48Issues 50, p41-42, 2p, 2 color; (AN 15583031), Business Source Premier. Green, C. F. 1989. Business ethics in banking, Journal of Business Ethics, 8: 631-634. Heffernan, S. 1998. Modern banking in theory and practice Banking structure around the world, pp115. John Wiley and Sons. Hassan, M. K. (1999). Islamic banking in theory and practice: The experience of Bangladesh, Managerial Finance, pp.60. Shafi, M. Taqi Usmani, M. (1997) The Issue of Interest, Pakistan, Darul Ishaat Taqi Usmani, M. (2005). An Introduction to Islamic Finance, Pakistan: Maktaba MaAriful Quran Taqi Usmani, M. (2002). An Introduction to Islamic Finance, Arab and Islamic Laws Series Kluwer Law International, pp.12. Hamid, S. A. 2006. Philosophy and practice of Islamic economics and finance. [online] URL: Accessed 15th November 2009. Online Reference: Available on: https://www.pakistan.gov.pk/ [Assessed on 4th November. 2009] Available on: https://www.islamic-banking.com/what_is_ibanking.aspx [Assessed on 18th November. 2009] Available on: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html [Assessed on 19th November 2009] Available on: https://www.ameinfo.com/214968.html [Assessed on 26th November 2009] Available on: https://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=16hid=8sid=ade97da4-867f-45ac-be43-8423498e48ec%40sessionmgr10 GCC Regional Report July/August 2009 by Gordon Platt, Islamic Finance. [Assessed on 21st November, 2009]
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Theory Oprah, BeyoncÃ ©, JK Rowling, Hilary Clinton and Bill Clinton, what do all these names have in common? Besides being predominately female and the obvious of all being extremely successful in the business, entertainment or political world. Each of these individuals is a first born. My theory of personality will focus on the personality of first born adolescents, as well as adults and how the personality traits of a first born result in them having a more successful adulthood and being the more responsible of siblings during adolescents due to the social influences of the family, mainly his or her parents. Paulhus, Trapnell, and Chen (1999) researched, Ã¢â¬Å"Across four diverse data sets first borns were nominated as most achieving and more conscientious later borns were nominated as most rebellious, liberal and agreeable.Ã¢â¬ (482). The different treatment of children by their parents varies on the order the child was born i.e. first borns must deal with a new competitor entering the family, with an addition of a sibling they are no longer the center of their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, they no longer receive the praise they were given unwarrantedly, now first borns must protect their position and priority in the family. This motivation by the first born that begins in childhood, or rather when the knowledge of an addition to the family is acquired, results in a drive to achieve success. For this study (Paulhus et al., 1999), a within family data set was used with four families, familyShow MoreRelatedAlfred Adler s Birth Order1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Alfred Adler believed that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s order of birth influenced their personality. Adler was one of the first of many psychologist to conjure up a theory about how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s position , in terms of birth order effected a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality traits. Adler made his discoveries by undergoing several studies that were used to help him identify patterns for particular within each specific birth order position, which included those who were only children and those who had siblings. Through his ownRead MoreAlfred Adler s Birth Order Theory945 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestheir personality. Also I was able to relate to this topic on a personal level compared to some of the other theories. Meaning, when learning and talking about birth order, as the first born in my family I was able to compare a lot of my traits to the ones described. It was interesting to see a psychologist create an actual theory trying to explain this idea. Which lead me to discuss in my presentation, how Adler de veloped this particular theory, its contributions to describing personality, and recentRead MoreEssay about Cultural Influences on Identity Development1502 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessome sort of an effect on either the physical or mental aspects of an individual. 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Erik had blond hair, blue eyes, and NordicRead MoreBirth Order Effects More Than Thought1018 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnothing to take lightly. Weather being a first born child or a last born chi ld is a prime factor in an adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s maturing. Being a first born child might make you more cautious rather than a last born child may make you an attention seeking child. To few peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, birth order determines many distinctive characteristics of an adolescent. There has been a Norwegian study that has found the average IQ of young men and has concluded that first born children and only children have the highestRead MoreSearching For Identity And Personality996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSearching for Identity and personality Howard W. Hunter former precedent for the american church society said Ã¢â¬Å"The greatest search of our time is the search for personal identity and for human dignity.Ã¢â¬ (Brough.m 1995). The search for identity is a key search for one to find an idol that can become a role to lead the lifestyle of himself or herself. Identity is to understand and define one self; developing a concept of the purpose of our existence(onecountry.org).Their is a relationshipRead MoreThe Social Development Of Children And Adolescents1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe social relationships of children and adolescents are really important, especially with their family, siblings and peers at school. At different ages, the ways we socialize with different people various in different situations base on the social experiences that we have gained in the past. The word Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ refers to people who have a mutual and close relationship with each others, the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"peer groupÃ¢â ¬ is an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s small relative group that consists of individuals who share theRead MoreEssay about Factors That Influence Gender Identity756 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfor the first time, physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development advance to the point at which the individual can sort through and synthesize childhood identities and identifications to construct a viable path toward adult maturity. We often see the results of this sorting process in behaviors of adolescents such as adopting and shedding different personas including speech patterns, clothing styles and peer groups. Although these transitions often seem drastic and swift, adolescents are utilizingRead MoreAdolescent Self-Portrait Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAdolescent Self-Portrait December 1, 2014 BSHS/325 Maria Perrotta Adolescent Self-Portrait From the time an individual is born, they are facing continual growth and changes. Upon reaching adolescence, an individual will face many changes quickly that affect feelings and personality. Males and females face the same milestones, yet, are affected and changed by them differently. What It Feels Like To Be a Teenager Being a teenager is an exciting, scary, and overall stressfulRead MoreTeenager Is A Teenager, An Exciting, Scary, Horrible, And Overall Stressful Time1483 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrom the time that an individual is born into this world, they are continually faced with growth and change. Upon the reaching of adolescence, an individual will face many more changes that affect feelings, emotions and personality. Males and females face the same milestones with different hormones, so they are affected and changed by them differently. What It Feels Like To Be a Teenager Being a teenager is an exciting, scary, and overall stressful time in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Many changes occur physically
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
This foundational course covers local area network topics including rationale for networking, the open systems interconnection (OSI) model, common network topologies and architecture, client/server concepts, basic hardware devices and usage, and basic networking security concepts. Policies Faculty and students will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Stallings, W. (2009). Business data communications (6th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Tomsho, G. (2011). Guide to networking essentials (6th ed. ). Clifton Park, NY: Course Technology, Cengage Learning. All electronic materials are available on the student website. Week One, Mar 3, 2014: Local Area Networks Details Due Points Objectives Explain the purpose of a LAN and the benefits it can provide to its users. 1. 2 Differentiate between types of networks. 1. 3 Define basic LAN terminology. 1. 4 Explain how LAN operating systems work. Course Preparation Read the course description and objectives. Read the instructorÃ¢â¬â¢s biography and post your own. Reading Read Appendix A. Reading Read Ch. 2, Ã¢â¬Å"Network Hardware Essentials,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials. Reading Read Ch. 3, Ã¢â¬Å"Network Topologies and Technologies,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials. Reading Read Ch. 6, Ã¢â¬Å"Network Reference Models and Standards,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials. Participation Participate in class discussion. All Week 10 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. DQ1- Day 2 DQ2- Day 4 10 CheckPoint LAN Operating Systems Scenarios Read the three scenarios in Appendix B. Answer the questions following each scenario for a total of 200 to 300 words. Day 5 30 Week Two, Mar 10, 2014: The OSI Model and Topologies Details Due Points Objectives 2 2. 1 Define key terms related to the OSI model. 2. 2 Describe the functions of hardware connectivity devices and tools. 2. 3 Illustrate different LAN topologies. CheckPoint OSI Model Key Terms Table Use the table in Appendix C to define the key terms related to the OSI model. Describe the functions of any hardware connectivity devices and tools listed. Post Appendix C as an attachment. Day 4 30 Individual LAN Topologies Read Case Projects 3-1, 3-2, 3-3 of the Guide to Networking Essentials. Determine what type of physical and logical topology will be used for each scenario. Substantively explain the reasoning for your answer. Create a visual representation of each chosen topology by copying and pasting the shapes provided in Appendix DÃ¢â¬âsuch as a bus, ring, star, or meshÃ¢â¬âinto a MicrosoftÃ ® Word document. Note that you will need to use the Draw feature in MicrosoftÃ ® Word to create lines between the shapes, and you may have to use some shapes more than once. Refer to the Figures 3-1 through 3-4 of Guide to Networking Essentials for examples. Post your assignment as an attachment. Day 7 100 Week Three, Mar 17, 2014: Technology Types Details Due Points Objectives 3 3. 1 Differentiate between types of Internet connectivity. 3. 2 Compare and contrast fat client and thin client concepts. 3. 3 Plan an Ethernet LAN. Reading Read the Ã¢â¬Å"Fiber Distributed Data Interface TechnologyÃ¢â¬ section through the end of the chapter in Ch. Network Topologies and Technologies,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials. Reading Read Ch. 5, Ã¢â¬Å"Network Protocols,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials Participation Participate in class discussion. All Week 10 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. DQ1 Ã¢â¬â Day 1 DQ2 Ã¢â¬â Day 4 10 CheckPoint Network Consultant Scenarios Complete Case Projects 3-1, 3-2, 3-3 of Guide to Networking Essentials. After determining if a client-based or client/server model will be used, substantively justify your choice in 200 to 300 words. Day 5 30 Week Four, Mar 24, 2014: Introduction to TCP/IP Details Due Points Objectives 4 4. 1 Describe how to troubleshoot the TCP/IP network. 4. 2 Explain TCP/IP and the concept of addressing and allocation. 4. 3 Distinguish between various networking protocols. 4. 4 Plan a TCP/IP LAN. CheckPoint TCP/IP LAN Plan Practice planning a network by completing questions 1, 2, 4, 11, 14, 15, 16, 20 in Ch. 5 of Guide to Networking Essentials. Select and explain each answer in a total of 200 to 300 words. Day 5 30 Exercise Toolwire Lab: Planning a TCP/IP Physical and Logical Network Log in to the student website. Click Week 4 and then click the link to the Toolwire Lab. A new window opens containing a description of the lab. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click Lab Access to begin the lab. Complete the lab assignment as indicated. Take a screenshot of the completed Toolwire Lab activity and paste it into the body of a new post. To do this, press the Print Screen or Prt Scr key on the upper right-hand corner of your keyboard. Open a new post and press Ctrl + V. Your screenshot should paste directly into the body of your post. If your screenshot does not post, you may paste your screenshot into the body of a MicrosoftÃ ® Word document and submit it as an attachment. Post your message. Day 4 15 Individual TCP/IP Network Troubleshooting Use Appendix E1 Network Diagram. Identify the problems with the TCP/IP network configuration and explain how they should be fixed. Complete the table in Appendix E. Explain your answer for each problem found. Post Appendix E as an attachment. Day 7 100 Week Five, Mar 31, 2014: Protocols and Services Details Due Points Objectives 5 5. 1 Discuss the concept of domain/addressing and dynamic DNS and DNS. 5. 2 Outline simple network management protocol and how it is used. 5. 3 Differentiate between web pages, web servers, and web access. Reading Read the Ã¢â¬Å"Storage Area NetworkÃ¢â¬ section through the Ã¢â¬Å"DNS ServerÃ¢â¬ section in Ch. 8, Ã¢â¬Å"Network Operating System Fundamentals,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials. Reading Read the Ã¢â¬Å"Managing User and Group AccountsÃ¢â¬ section through Ã¢â¬Å"User Profiles,Ã¢â¬ section in Ch. 9, Ã¢â¬Å"Server Management and Administration,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials. Reading Read Ch. 4, Ã¢â¬Å"The Internet,Ã¢â¬ of Business Data Communications. Reading Read section 20. 3 in Ch. 20, Ã¢â¬Å"Network Management,Ã¢â¬ of Business Data Communications. Participation Participate in class discussion. All Week 10 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. DQ1 Ã¢â¬â Day 2 DQ2 Ã¢â¬â Day 4 10 CheckPoint Domain Name Assume the role of an IT consultant to a new nonprofit organization, Free Flu, which provides flu shots to the elderly. The organization needs a domain name. Utilize Internet resources to determine which domain name is available to the company. Judge whether you would use . com, . org, or . net for the web address. Differentiate between any web pages or web servers you would use for this task. Describe your findings and reasoning in 200 to 300 words. Day 5 30 Week Six, April 7, 2014: Networking with MicrosoftÃ ® WindowsÃ ® Details Due Points Objectives 6 6. 1 Define the various network services in MicrosoftÃ ® WindowsÃ ®. 6. 2 Describe how to establish user rights and permissions. 6. 3 Explain how to assign work groups. CheckPoint Vocabulary Table Define five key terms listed in the Vocabulary Table in Appendix F. Post Appendix F as an attachment. Day 4 30 Exercise Toolwire Lab: Designing a Site Infrastructure Log in to the student website. Click Week 6 and then click the link to the Toolwire lab. A new window opens containing a description of the lab. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click Lab Access to begin the lab. Complete the lab assignment as indicated. Take a screenshot of the completed Toolwire Lab activity from your computer screen and paste it into the body of a new post. Post your message. Day 5 15 Individual Work Group Scenarios Read the following scenario: Your MicrosoftÃ ® WindowsÃ ® 2000-based office network has three domains: ALPHA, BETA, and OMEGA, all in the same Active Directory tree. Required result: You must provide access to some users with accounts in the ALPHA domain to some resources in the OMEGA domain, but users in the OMEGA domain should not have access to resources in the ALPHA domain. Optional result: If possible, changes to the ALPHA usersÃ¢â¬â¢ accounts should be reflected in the accounts they use to access OMEGA resources. Proposed solution: Add the ALPHA users to a global group in ALPHA, and add that group to a local OMEGA group that has permissions to the required resources. Based on your goals and your actions, determine which of the following statements is true and explain: You accomplished both your required result and your optional result. You accomplished your required result, but not your optional result. Post your assignment as a MicrosoftÃ ® Word attachment. Day 7 100 Week Seven, April 14, 2014: Network Security Details Due Points Objectives 7 7. 1 Provide examples of threats, vulnerabilities, and exploits to networks and how they relate to each other. 7. 2 Explain the importance of maintaining security on a LAN. Reading Read the Ã¢â¬Å"Backup and Fault ToleranceÃ¢â¬ section through the end of the chapter in Ch. 9, Ã¢â¬Å"Server Management and Administration,Ã¢â¬ of Guide to Networking Essentials. Reading Read section 5. 5 in Ch. 5, Ã¢â¬Å"TCP/IP and OSI,Ã¢â¬ of Business Data Communications. Reading Read Ch. 18, Ã¢â¬Å"Computer and Network Security Threats,Ã¢â¬ of Business Data Communications. Participation Participate in class discussion. All Week 10 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. DQ1 Ã¢â¬â Day 2 DQ2 Ã¢â¬â Day 4 10 Week Eight, April 21, 2014: Network Maintenance: Prevention and Recovery Details Due Points Objectives 8 8. 1 Categorize and describe the components of various types of computer viruses 8. 2 Discuss the relevance of system backup for data protection. 8. 3 Explain the RAID system of data protection. 8. 4 Create a disaster plan for the purpose of network preservation CheckPoint Threat Categorization Define each of the following terms in your own words: Boot sector File virus Multipartite virus Macro virus Trojan horse E-mail worms Instant messaging worms IRC worms File-sharing networks worms Internet worms Explain how each virus or worm functions and spreads. Determine in which category the threat you researched in Week Seven belongs. Your response must be between 200 and 300 words. Day 5 30 Individual Disaster Plan Read the company descriptions in Appendix G and select one. Create a disaster plan for your selected organization that includes how you would recommend the company back up and protect its network data. Your plan must be 1,250 to 1,500 words in length, and your recommendations must be based on the RAID system of data protection. Your plan must also address how the company should protect against natural disasters that might occur in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s geographic location. Include any charts, graphs, or visual components that are helpful in illustrating your plan. Format your plan consistent with APA guidelines. Post your plan as a MicrosoftÃ ® Word attachment. Day 7 100 Week Nine, April 28, 2014: Network Performance Details Due Points Objectives 9 9. 1 Develop a plan for a local area network. Participation Participate in class discussion. All Week 10 Capstone Discussion Question Respond to the capstone discussion question. Considering what you have learned throughout this course, would you feel comfortable setting up a local area network? Why or why not? Day 3 10 Final Project LAN Consulting Plan Read Appendix A. Develop a plan to set up a local area network based on the scenario presented in Appendix A. Create a 10- to 12-slide, boardroom-quality MicrosoftÃ ® PowerPointÃ ® presentation detailing your plan. Post your presentation as a MicrosoftÃ ® PowerPointÃ ® attachment. Day 7 260 Optional Discussion Questions Week One Discussion Questions Explain what kind of network you are on at work or home. If you do not have access to a network, ask a friend or family member to explain the type of network he or she has access to. What benefits does the network provide to its users? How does it help increase productivity? Read one of your classmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ network descriptions. Respond to his or her post and identify whether the network he or she described is a client/server network or a peer-to-peer network, and whether it is a LAN, MAN, or WAN. Ask questions if you find that additional information is needed to determine the networkÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics. Which four terms relate to networking? Define them in your own words. Week Three Discussion Questions What are the various types of Internet connectivity available today? How do they differ? Explain your answers. Compare fat client and thin client concepts. What are the pros and cons of each? Provide examples to support your answers. Week Five Discussion Questions What is DNS? How do users benefit from it? Provide a brief description of the DNS process to resolve a URL to its IP address. SNMP is a protocol for network management. What are the basic components of SNMP? What are the benefits of the functions provided by SNMP? SNMP uses the UDP protocol for transport. Why was UDP chosen over TCP? Week Seven Discussion Questions What are some current computer threats? Describe the nature of the threat and the potential repercussions it could have for a network. The following are some suggested sites to begin your search: http://www. mcafee. com/us/ http://www. microsoft. com http://www. cnet. com What roles do firewalls and proxy servers play in network security? What is the importance of maintaining security on a LAN? Provide examples to support your answer. Copyright University of PhoenixÃ ® is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. MicrosoftÃ ®, WindowsÃ ®, and Windows NTÃ ® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other company and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Use of these marks is not intended to imply endorsement, sponsorship, or affiliation. Edited in accordance with University of PhoenixÃ ® editorial standards and practices.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Song Analysis White America is a song in which Amine creates many contradictions to show Inconsistencies In the American social structure. This Is Important because it reveals critical flaws in the American society that gives false illusions to immigrants and U. S citizens that the United States plays fair in wars. Amine plays as a voice for the American people. Through his music he points out the flaws in our government and speaks to the people who have been entrapped by It. In the first verse Amine ascribes America as the stripes and the stars for the rights men have died for to protect, the women and men who have broke their necks for the freedom of speech the United States government has sworn to uphold(Amine). In the first line he puts stress on stripes and stars which creates an Image of patriotism. Amine believes that Its a false image of patriotism that the U. We will write a custom essay sample on White America or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page S government pushes forward to the American people.Twisted words and excellent social control helps the government to convince the American public into believing anything they want us to believe. In my yes we are all equal, we are human beings, patriotism creates unnecessary conflict which pushes hostility towards one another. In the background of the song you can hear whizzing sounds which represent the national anthem and sound of the Blue Angels F-1 gs fighter jets, which is a military symbol of America. In the next three verses, the words rights, died, and protect (Amine) remind Americans of the sacrifices the country has to make to receive such rights as the freedom of speech the united states government has sworn to uphold (Amine) and to encourage them to appreciate these rights since hey are here because of the sacrifices of many women and men. In this song Amine describes to the people that all American people possess these natural rights. The governments Job Is to uphold and protect these rights meaning they were pre-existent and not given.So, according to Amines belief, being an American should automatically guarantee rights equal to other Americans. He uses this fact to begin to show the hypocrisy of our democracy (Ford). The united States government Is not giving these rights to the American people. They are simply protecting them, its the opposite of what they want us to believe. The few elites that control the people separate themselves behind an iron curtain and manipulate the public in order to start unnecessary wars and financially burden the country.He also attacks the FCC (Federal Communication Commission) and parents that censor everything in the media and do not let people see the whole truth or the true meaning behind things. Amine refers his supporters who believe censorship isnt right in l go to CRY look how many hugs I get (Amine). It is his belief that the media does not report the whole truth. This has been proved by many people. The news hat people watch when they turn the Television on Is biased.In a line Just sprays and sprays straight through your radio waves it plays and plays till it stays stuck in 1 OFF means when you fire an automatic weapon with hopes of hitting your enemy. Its the opposite of aiming at your enemy and hitting them with few shots. This refers to the uncontrollable advertisement and misinformation that is streamed through the radio 2417, with hopes of hitting as many people as possible. We come to a point where we ignore all of the things companies try and sell us, and Just because you ignore it it isnt mean it doesnt affect you.A handful companies own everything we see on the television and anything that comes through the radio. Parents who are in charge of their kids need to be especially aware of this. They have to moderate what their kids watch, and activities they participate in. No parent will allow their children to watch horrific things on the TV. Kids are like sponges they will absorb everything they see and hear. They have not developed that filter that sorts things out. Marshall takes pride in what hes doing, he believes the statement hes making peaks for all the American people.In one of his lyrics he specifically says how can I predict my words and have an impact like this (Amine). He also goes on to point out that the government told him to keep quiet; l musts struck a chord wit somebody up in the office, cue Congress keeps telling me I anti causing monotint but problems (Amine). We dont know whether this is true or not, maybe all hes doing is promoting himself since a lot of people do believe in all sorts of conspiracies. Especially the suburban kids in America who are separated from the AfricanAmerican rap community l speak to suburban kids who otherwise wowed never knew these words exist (Amine). If the allegations are against the peoples own government it hold a stronger purpose because its something we all relate to.. Anyone would listen more closely to a famous figure who speaks up against our government, whether its true or not. Especially kids who are living the mainstream culture of today, where most of their norms and values comes from a box that they sit in front of eight hours a day. Every Amine song has been throwing out truths about our government.The social control that the media has on us, Amine exposes it. To the naked eye his lyrics are meaningless, some might even say hes doing it because of self-interest. But if you put his music under a microscope you can see the unveiling message that Amine tries to put forth. There are a few messages in the song like the FCC who censors everything and the U. S government who misinform the American people about plans and laws they try to enact. His music reaches millions of people in the U. S. The first week of this songs release it has sold over 1. 7 million copies.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Birth of the Olympian Gods and Goddesses How did the world start according to your worldview? Was there a sudden cosmic spark emerging from nowhere? Did life then emerge from some sort of almost living form? Did a supreme being create the world in seven days and form the first woman from the rib of the first (male) human? Was there a great swirling chaos from which emerged a frost giant and a salt-licking cow? A cosmic egg? Greek mythology contains creation stories that are very different from either the familiar story of Adam and Eve or the Big Bang. In Greek myths about the early world, themes of parental treachery alternate with tales of filial betrayal. Youll also find love and loyalty. There are all the essentials of good plot lines. Birth and cosmic creation are linked. Mountains and other physical parts of the world are born through procreation. Granted, it is procreation between things that we dont think of as procreating, but this is an ancient version and part of the ancient mythological worldview. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. Parental Treachery: In Generation 1, the sky (Uranus), who is seemingly without any love at all for his offspring (or maybe he just wants his wife all to himself), hides his children inside his wife, Mother Earth (Gaia). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. Filial Betrayal: In Generation 2, the Titan father (Cronus) swallows his children, the newborn Olympians. In Generation 3, the Olympic gods and goddesses have learned from the examples of their ancestors, so there is more parental treachery: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Zeus swallows one mate and sews the soon-to-be born offspring of another inside himself after he kills the mother. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hera, the wife of Zeus, creates a god without a mate, but even he isnt safe from his parents, for Hera (or Zeus) hurls her son from Mt. Olympus. 1st Generation Generation implies a coming into being, so that which was there from the beginning is not and cannot be generated. What has always been there, whether it be a god or a primeval force (here, Chaos), is not the first generation. If for convenience, it requires a number, it can be referred to as Generation Zero. Even the first generation here gets a bit tricky if examined too closely since it could be said to cover 3 generations, but thats not terribly relevant for this look at parents (particularly, fathers) and their treacherous relations with their children. According to some versions of Greek mythology, at the beginning of the universe, there was Chaos. Chaos was all alone [Hesiod Theog. l.116], but soon Gaia (Earth) appeared. Without the benefit of a sexual partner, Gaia gave birth to Uranus (Sky) to provide covering and father half-siblings. With Uranus serving as the father, mother Gaia gave birth to the 50-headed Hecatonchiresthe Cyclopes (Cyclops)the 12 Titans 2nd Generation Eventually, the 12 Titans paired off, male and female: Cronus and RheaIapetus and ThemisOceanus and TethysHyperion and TheiaCrius and MnemosyneCoeus and Phoebe They produced rivers and springs, second generation Titans, Atlas and Prometheus, moon (Selene), sun (Helios), and many others. Much earlier, before the Titans had paired off, their father, Uranus, who was hateful and rightly fearful that one of his sons might overthrow him, shut all his children inside his wife, their Mother Earth (Gaia). And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Earth so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Heaven rejoiced in his evil doing. But vast Earth groaned within, being straitened, and she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons. - Hesiod Theogony, which is all about the generation of gods. Another version comes from 1.1.4 Apollodorus*, who says Gaia was angry because Uranus had thrown his first children, the Cyclopes, into Tartarus. [See, I told you there was love; here, maternal.] At any rate, Gaia was angry with her husband for imprisoning their children either within her or in Tartarus, and she wanted her children released. Cronus, the dutiful son, agreed to do the dirty work: he used that flint sickle to castrate his father, rendering him impotent (without power). 3rd Generation Then the Titan Cronus, with his sister Rhea as a wife, sired six children. These were the Olympic gods and goddesses: HestiaHeraDemeterPoseidonHadesZeus Cursed by his father (Uranus), the Titan Cronus was afraid of his own children. After all, he knew how violent he had been towards his father. He knew better than to repeat the mistakes his father had made in leaving himself vulnerable, so instead of imprisoning his children in his wifes body (or Tartarus), Cronus swallowed them. Like her mother Earth (Gaia) before her, Rhea wanted her children to be free. With the help of her parents (Uranus and Gaia), she figured out how to defeat her husband. When it was time to give birth to Zeus, Rhea did it in secret. Cronus knew she was due and asked for the new baby to swallow. Instead of feeding him Zeus, Rhea substituted a stone. (No one said the Titans were intellectual giants.) Zeus matured safely until he was old enough to force his father to regurgitate his five siblings (Hades, Poseidon, Demeter, Hera, and Hestia). As G.S. Kirk points out in The Nature of Greek Myths, with the oral rebirth of his brothers and sisters, Zeus, once the youngest, became the oldest. At any rate, even if the regurgitation-reversal doesnt persuade you that Zeus could claim to be the oldest, he became the leader of the gods on snow-capped Mt. Olympus. 4th Generation Zeus, a first generation Olympian (although in the third generation since the creation), was father to the following second generation Olympians, put together from various accounts: AthenaAphroditeAresApolloArtemisDionysusHermesHephaestusPersephone The list of Olympians contains 12 gods and goddesses, but their identities vary. Hestia and Demeter, entitled to spots on Olympus, sometimes surrender their seats. Parents of Aphrodite and Hephaestus Although they may have been Zeus children, the lineage of 2 second-generation Olympians is in question: Some claim Aphrodite (goddess of love and beauty) sprang from the foam and severed genitals of Uranus. Homer refers to Aphrodite as the daughter of Dione and Zeus.Some (including Hesiod in the introductory quote) claim Hera as the sole parent of Hephaestus, the lame blacksmith god. But Zeus himself gave birth from his own head to bright-eyed Tritogeneia (29), the awful, the strife-stirring, the host-leader, the unwearying, the queen, who delights in tumults and wars and battles. But Hera without union with Zeus for she was very angry and quarreled with her mate bare famous Hephaestus, who is skilled in crafts more than all the sons of Heaven.-Hesiod Theogony 924ff It is interesting, but to my knowledge insignificant, that these two Olympians who had uncertain parentage married. Zeus as Parent Many of Zeus liaisons were unusual; for instance, he disguised himself as a cuckoo bird to seduce Hera. Two of his children were born in a manner he might have learned from his father or grandfather; that is, like his father Cronus, Zeus swallowed not only the child but the mother Metis while she was pregnant. When the fetus had fully formed, Zeus gave birth to their daughter Athena. Lacking the proper feminine apparatus, he gave birth through his head. After Zeus had frightened or burned his mistress Semele to death, but before she was completely incinerated, Zeus removed the fetus of Dionysus from her womb and sewed it into his thigh where the wine god-to-be developed until ready for rebirth. *Apollodorus, a 2nd Century B.C. Greek scholar, wrote a Chronicles and On the Gods, but the reference here is to the Bibliotheca or Library, which is falsely attributed to him.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Garbology - Essay Example Personally, my refuse pinpoints my shopping trends, the types of food I consume, my budget and expenditure, what types of food I eat on a regular basis, the number of people involved, and my concern for the environment. Essentially, I think I am regular shopper but not to the extent of being termed shopaholic. Most of my daily refuse comprise of shopping bags that I get from the store every time I shop. In fact, for every discarded trash, there is a shopping bag. In this respect, I think I prefer shopping regularly than just shopping once or twice a week. This means that I do not shop in bulk, thus the every-now-and-then trashing of shopping refuse. Food consumption can tell so much about me. Over the observation period, most of my refuse comprised of ready-made food stuff. Raw kitchen refuse was minimal, while ready-made food remains were quite substantial. I think I prefer buying take-away food to actual cooking, an aspect that my garbage essentially reflects. With regard to budgeting and expenditure, I think I am a high-scale spender. My budget hardly conforms to my expenditure plan, and the reason is well seen in the junk-food trash that I discard. This also takes into account my personality and character because when I host my friends or family the garbage bin gets the best out of it. I think I make frequent trips to the garbage bin more than any other person around my residence. Having said that, I think am responsible and concerned about the environment. I do not handle my trash carelessly. I make sure that what needs to be recycled and what needs to be trashed goes into the right section. On the same note, I opt to support green programs whenever I shop; I do this in stores that offer such programs. In general, my refuse can tell what kind of a lifestyle I have. As it is the case so far, most of my garbage encompasses groceries shopping. Whilst I do not consider myself a spendthrift, I think I believe in enhancing